A Formal Account of Deception

Chiaki Sakama

Proceedings of the AAAI Fall 2015 Symposium on Deceptive and Counter-Deceptive Machines, Technical Report FS-15-03, AAAI Press, pages 34-41, 2015.


This paper studies a formal account of deception using a dynamic epistemic logic. Three different types of deception are considered: deception by lying, deception by bluffing and deception by truth-telling, depending on whether a speaker believes what he/she says or not. Next several situations are considered where an act of deceiving happens. Intentional deception is accompanied by a speaker's intent to deceive. Indirect deception happens when false information is carried over from person to person. Self-deception is an act of deceiving the self. The current study formally characterizes various aspects of deception that have been informally argued in philosophical literature.

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