Deception in Epistemic Causal Logic
DeceptiveAI, Communications in Computer and Information Science, volume 1296, pages 105-123, Springer, 2021.
Deception is an act whereby one person causes another person to have a false belief.
This paper formulates deception using causal relations between a speaker's utterance and a hearer's belief states
in epistemic causal logic.
Four different types of deception are considered: deception by lying,
deception by bluffing, deception by truthful telling, and deception by omission,
depending on whether a speaker believes what he/she says or not, and whether a speaker makes an utterance or not.
Next several situations are considered where an act of deceiving happens.
Intentional deception is accompanied by a speaker's intent to deceive.
Indirect deception happens when false information is carried over from person to person.
Self-deception is an act of deceiving the self.
The current study formally characterizes various aspects of deception
that have been informally argued in philosophical literature.
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